Introduction Of Suicide – Introduction Of Suicide In Hindi
In 1897, Durkheim’s third important book Suicide was published in French under the name Le Suicide . In the words of Abraham and Morgan , “This book presents a theory of social coercion related to collective consciousness, in which a remarkable synergy between perceptual theory and empirical research has been made.
Suicide is generally considered to be a simple event which results from some personal difficulties. Dukham refuted this general belief and clarified it as a social fact, not considering suicide as an individual event.
He collected extensive data related to suicide from different countries of the world and told that the incidents of suicide are also a kind of social flow which takes away the more vulnerable people with them.
In other words, suicide, like any other social phenomenon, is a product of collective consciousness and collective pressure. Through these ideas, another Durkheim wanted to refute the thoughts of suicide based on psychology, biology, inheritance and geographical factors, on the other hand, his aim was to present a sociological explanation about suicide on the basis of statistical evidence.
With the help of his sharp vision and ability to analyze, he made it clear that society is the most important basis for controlling the life of an individual on social and moral grounds.
Meaning and characteristics of suicide in hindi
Suicide is such a common word that everyone can claim to know its meaning. For this reason the need to define it is generally not felt.
In contrast, Durkheim holds that suicide is not as common a concept as is commonly understood. Secondly, suicide , like social facts, is also a social phenomenon which has the quality of restraint and compulsion.
In this situation, it is necessary that after understanding the various aspects related to suicide , it should also be properly defined. The reality is that normal death and suicide are two different conditions. From this point of view, if those elements related to suicide are known, which are lacking in normal death, then the meaning of suicide can be well understood.
Clarifying this, Dukhim wrote, “ The word suicide is used for any death which is a direct or indirect result of some positive or negative act done by the deceased person.
It is clear in this statement that suicide is directly or indirectly the result of the act done by the deceased, whereas Dukham believes that when a person ends his own life.
So the causes of this action are situated outside that person. In this sense, suicide is a consequence arising out of the pressure of some external conditions, which even after understanding it, the person is not able to escape from it. Even after this it is necessary to keep in mind that suicide is a direct result of the attempt made by the deceased to end his life, not indirect.
For example, if a person jumps down on the ground from a high place on the assumption that the ground is only 10 feet below him, but actually dies by jumping because he is at a higher height, then it will not be a direct result of his action. . In this case it will be called an accident, not suicide .
In fact, suicide is a deliberate act committed by the deceased under the influence of some external condition, the result of which the person is already conscious of. On this basis, Durkheim has defined suicide by writing, ‘The word suicide is used for all those incidents of death.
Which is the direct or indirect result of some positive or negative action of the deceased himself and whose future consequences he himself knows. Through this statement, Durkheim made it clear that suicide is not always the result of any positive action, but suicide can also be committed by any negative action.
For example, suicide by consuming poison or by shooting oneself is the result of a positive action, while refusing to take medicine even after a fatal illness or giving up life by not eating is a negative action for suicide . .
The act of committing suicide , even if it is not officially defined as a suicide, cannot be termed as a suicide until it results in a century. In the words of Diem, “ Suicide will exist only when the person knows with certainty the consequences of committing the deadly act, although the degree of certainty may be more or less.
If Vashi does not know with certainty about the result of any dhatak action, then even if the person dies from it, it will not be called suicide . For example, a person who jumps to death in a circus or performs tricks of venomous snakes sees the result of their actions as mere entertainment.
If a person dies by biting the breath of death, then it cannot be called suicide .
Some of its main elements or characteristics are clear from the concept of suicide , which can be understood in simple words as follows:
Key Features of Suicide – Meaning and characteristics of suicide in hindi
1. Result of personal action
The most prominent element or characteristic of suicide is that it is the result of the action of the person who commits suicide. According to Durkheim, this action can be positive as well as negative. For example, killing oneself by shooting or jumping from a high place is a positive action, while ending one’s life by refusing to eat food is a negative action.
2 . Consciousness of Consequences
Suicide is a direct result of the action done by the deceased . The person who commits suicide towards this result is fully conscious otherwise he knows that the result of a particular action will be of durkhim in the form of death. If a person dies accidentally as a result of some dangerous act, then due to lack of consciousness about the result in such act, it cannot be called suicide.
3. Voluntary Incorporation
Suicide is an act that a person commits on his own volition. If a person is compelled by some people to end his own life and the death of the person is the result of that compulsion, then such death will also not be classified as suicide.
This means that a clear intention in the person is essential for suicide . By this Durshim made it clear that there is a clear difference between suicide and death because death is a condition in which there is a lack of will.
4. Inclusion of Purpose
Behind every suicide there must be some motive of the deceased, whether this motive is direct or indirect. Durkheim believes that the motive of suicide is not always clear, but there must be a social basis for suicide which drives a person to commit suicide. This objective can be individual as well as collective.
If a person wants to save the family from slander or financial bankruptcy by suicide , then it is an individual purpose, whereas a soldier deliberately sacrificing his life for the defense of the country is an example of a collective purpose. If a person kills himself without any purpose by jumping into a deep river or jumping in front of a train, it is said to be just a psychosis.
5. The cause of suicide is external to the person
Dukham laid special emphasis on the fact that the cause of suicide does not exist within the individual, but some external conditions motivate a person to commit suicide. If the cause of suicide had been fixed within the individual, there would have been a lot of disparity in the rate of suicide over different periods. On the contrary, the incidents of suicide continue to occur at a fixed rate with little variation in different societies .
This proves that only certain characteristics of the social structure create favorable conditions for suicide . Unless these conditions change significantly, there will be no change in the suicide rate either.
6. a social fact
The most important feature of suicide , according to Durkheim, is that suicide is not an individual event but a social fact. In other words, the cause of suicide is social rather than physical. An individual event can be understood on the basis of the husband’s life-creation, mental conditions or imitation etc.
In contrast, the cause of a social phenomenon lies in the structure of the society and the moral organization of the society. Durshim collected suicide data from different countries of Europe and made it clear that according to the social, religious and economic structure of different societies, there is a variation in the suicide rate and each year in a particular society the rate of suicide is higher. No difference is found.
This means that social conditions influence suicide rates. Suicide is therefore also a social fact. that it has the characteristics of externality and compulsion.